Presentation for Scheid Diesel Extravaganza in Terre Haute IN.
Stanadyne Automotive Corp is one of the world’s largest manufacturer of on board Diesel Fuel delivery systems meaning Pumps – Injectors – And Filters we are also the only Pump and Injector co in the world to manufacture and market our own line of diesel fuel additives
Our world headquarters is located in Windsor CT. we have manufacturing facilities in Windsor also in Jackson NC - Washington NC - Chicago Il London England , Paris France and Milan Italy
Our major customers are companies like John Deere, Ford, General Motors Caterpillar, Perkins, Agco and many others located around the world.
I’m telling you this so that you will understand that we are Diesel People, we do Diesel and we do it pretty well
Ok so much for the commercial let’s get on with the program.
I’ve got quite a bit of information to pass on to you today, and we don’t have a lot of time so I’m going to give you the Readers Digest version and a scatter gun presentation but I think you will get quite a bit out of it and I hope you leave feeling that it was time well spent.
The Theme for our discussion is “WHY DO WE NEED TO USE A DIESEL FUEL ADDITVE” Well it ain't your fathers diesel fuel anymore and it hasn’t been for quite a while.
Why ? 2 reasons A refining process known as Catalytic Cracking and Environmental Emissions Regulations. To better understand where we are today we need to take a minute to look back at where we came from.
20 years ago diesel fuel was produced as a product of straight line distillation refining. A big tank was filled with crude oil and then it was heated. As it cooked it began to give off vapors which were collected in condensation coils, converted to liquid and piped into storage tanks.
First to come off were the light aeromatics such as Benzenes, Next came Gasoline, followed by Kerosene, which was followed by # 2 diesel which was followed by Bunker fuel which was followed by Road Oil. Until finally all that was left was a thick sludge in the bottom of the tank which we know as Asphalt or Tar.
In the 1980’s, driven by the gas shortage the refineries began using the “Cat Cracking Process” which meant using a Catalyst process much like the science that is used in the catalytic converter on automobiles, to extract more Gasoline from a barrel of crude oil. And that was a good thing…
However there is a down side. The problem is that the Cat Cracking Process isn’t as precise as Straight Line Distillation. And extracting more gas also means that we don’t get as much Kerosene and Diesel Fuel as a percentage of the total product. The diesel fuel isn’t as pure, it contains much more Wax, Gums and Asphaltine tars.
It is important to point out that up to a certain point Wax, Gums and Tars are beneficial to diesel fuel. They contain the greatest amount of BTU’s of energy which gives more power and mileage from the fuel. But too much of a good thing is a bad thing, why, ? Because heavy fuel doesn’t ignite or combust very well, it will have a lower Cetane Value and at the same time have a higher cloud and pour point.
Right about now you may be wondering if I ‘m going to explain what that stuff means,,,, Yes I am.
First Cetane Rating, What is it ?. It is a measure of time lapse from the time of Injection to the time of combustion or explosion of the fuel in the cylinder of the engine .The faster this event occurs the higher the Cetane rating will be. Faster is better, thus the better quality of the fuel, The higher the Cetane will be. Don’t confuse Cetane with Octane. Octane Rating is a Rating which is applied to gasoline. They both are a measure of the fuel quality but they mean exactly the opposite. The slower and more controlled the combustion in gasoline the higher the Octane rating will be. Older gas engines will knock and ping if you try to run low octane gas because they weren’t designed for Fuel which ignites and explodes rapidly and violently. Diesel engines are..
Unlike Gasoline, other than sulfur content, of not more than 500 parts per million, Diesel Fuel has no Regulated Legal Standard for Quality !!
Let me repeat that, Diesel Fuel has no Regulated Legal Standard for Quality except for the amount of sulfur it can contain.
The only thing we have in Diesel fuel is an ASTM standard which is an Industry recommended guideline. Now it’s generally accepted that the Refineries do try to hold to the Standard but the Parameters are so broad and in some cases confusing and contradictory that realistically speaking, there really aren’t any standards.
In the final analysis, Consumer acceptance actually does more to influence the quality. However when demand is high and you need Fuel. Consumer be damned here it is take or leave it.
Next what is Cloud Point ? Cloud point is the temperature of the Fuel at which the desolved Paraffin Wax in the fuel begins to solidify and come out of solution, causing a hazy or clouded appearance in the fuel. Typically we see clouding begin at about 28 – 29 *
Next , What is Cold Filter Plug Point, At about 10* - 12* below the cloud point of the fuel say 18 – 19 * those little wax particles which have formed begin to stick together making larger wax particles, rather like making a Snow Ball, until they will clog the Fuel Filter and stop the fuel flow.
Now what is Pour Point ? Pour Point is the temperature at which the fuel becomes so thick it is like Molasses and is no longer free flowing or pourable. I expect to see that to occur anywhere from 10 * above to 10 * below zero.
A good rule of thumb is that Midway between the Cloud Point and the Pour Point of the fuel will be the Cold Filter Plug Point so Hypothetically if we have a fuel with a Cloud of 28* and Pour of 0* our Could Filter Plug or operation temperature will be approximately 14*. If we lower the Pour Point to say –40* we get a corresponding decrease in the Could Filter Plug Point and the Midway point will now be –6*
What is Lubricity ? Lubricity is the performance characteristic and ability of the fuel to adequately lubricate the Fuel Pump and Injectors as they are working to send fuel to the engine. If Diesel Fuel is the Life Blood of a Diesel Engine then Lubricity is the Plasma..
In my opinion, Lubricity is the most crucial component of Diesel Fuel, More important than Cetane, Cloud Point or Pour Point, here’s why
The Fuel pump is a very well designed, well-engineered Durable piece of machinery. It will last a long time and give good service However it is also a very Intricate, Precise and Close Tolerance device. Normally it works like a well-oiled machine but it must be lubricated to perform properly and to last as long as it should. The vast majority of Diesel Fuel pumps are totally dependent on the fuel for Lubrication.
90% or more of the Pre-mature Pump failures are caused by poor quality Fuel, Fuel that has been Blended with to much Kerosene or treated with Alcohol Based Additives or maybe both.
Now why has Lubricity become such a serious matter and why is it that todays Diesel Fuel is marginal at best for Lubrication ? The answer is Low Sulfur Fuel
In order to meet E.P. A. Regulations for Sulfur Emissions refineries use a process called Hydro Treating to flush the Sulfur out of the fuel.
Sulfur has no beneficial effect, It has no redeeming value in diesel fuel, as a matter of fact it is actually corrosive, however there is a Mercaptane Molecule linked to the Sulfur Molecule which is very beneficial. It maintains the Viscosity, the Stability and Lubricating Properties of the fuel. When you pull the Sulfur out you also take the Mercaptanes. It’s like Throwing the Baby out with the Bath Water
Now I hate to say it but as bad as it is now it’s going to get worse. The EPA has Ruled that the current Sulfur content of 50 parts per million has to be cut to 15 parts per million by the year 2004, with the possibility of an extension to 2006. What this is going to mean is a Poorer Quality Fuel with Higher Refining and Consumer Costs.
As you may have heard there are some developments taking place in the area of Reformulated Diesel. The Reformulation, called Enviroblend is essentially vegetable oil, Typically Soy Bean Oil in mix with #2 Diesel. At this time we don’t have a lot of data or experience to reach a final decision, but we have done some testing on it and other than some improvement in Lubricity and cleaning, I’m not encouraged by what we have seen so far. I personally think that to be meaningful or significant that the mixture rate is going to have to be somewhere above 10 % and we do have a concern about the fact that vegetable oil will absorb and carry a great deal more water and may be very difficult to filter. In addition vegetable oil will raise the cloud point of the fuel 6-7 degrees which is going to be a problem with cold filter plugging occurring even sooner, of the few locations and users that I’m aware of, Enviroblend is only used during warm weather months. As a result of these issues, Stanadyne will only approve a dilution or blend of 5 % for use in our fuel systems and components. Because vegetable oil doesn’t have the same energy content value as # 2 Diesel Fuel, fuel mileage is reduced. The Enviroblend producers that I have talked to have stated that cost per gallon will increase aprox. 10-15 cents per gallon, so it appears that Enviroblend is going to be a costly proposition for the user.
On the subject of Fuel Filters, Today All your Major Brand Fuel Filters are dual Function. That means they don’t just filter the fuel they also separate the water out. The filters contain a Hydrophobic Paper Media, which allows the Fuel to Flow thru but Slides the water off down the side and into the bottom of the canister or bowl. There it can be drained off or discarded when you change the filter. Servicing your Fuel Filters are extremely important, especially if you have a Power Stroke with electronic injectors. They will not tolerate water, water in the seat of the injector will cause corrosion, the injector will seize up and have to be replaced.
You may want to consider installing a Drainable Pre Filter to your fuel system. They aren’t that expensive and they are good insurance against water contamination.
If you use a good , all purpose , Fuel Additive that contains a Water Coalescent and not a dispersant, your Filter will work a lot better and be much more efficient in removing water from the fuel.
Now on the subject of Fuel Additives. If I’m operating a Diesel I have to accept and recognize the fact that the fuel I’m buying ain’t as good as I want it to be…Bringing the fuel up to a level that I want is up to me cause it ain’t going to happen from the refinery.. I’m going to need an additive.
How do you choose a good additive? ? Try to find one that’s OEM approved. Talk to people who know, educate yourself. Your First best choice is your nearest Pump and Injector Service Center. People like Scheid Diesel, they are experts in this business and they know what they are talking about.
I think you will finally decide that you want an all-purpose, year round product with the following benefits.
First, Remember as I said earlier You want a Lubricity agent for essential Lubrication.
Second, Cetane Improver, This will improve starting, reduce smoking substantially, improve drivability and performance, and raise fuel mileage
Third, Anti-Gel or Pour Point Depressant for cold weather operation. It keeps wax particles from joining together and clogging the filter. It keeps the fuel flowing and pourable. Remember this, in order for an Anti Gel to work you have to treat the fuel before it Gels. Once the fuel starts to Gel, the Anti Gel won’t work.
Fourth, A mild Cleaning Agent to prevent the formation of Varnish Deposits on the internal parts of the Pumps and Injectors
Fifth, A water Coalescent to extract the water from the fuel
And finally, A Glycol package to keep the water from freezing and blocking the fuel lines and filter.
Remember Avoid Alcohol Based Additives…In addition to worsening Lubricity Alcohol usually requires high concentrations or feed rates in order to work. Because Alcohol has a much lower flash or ignition point than diesel fuel, when you mix it , you can actually lower the flash point of the fuel and alter the timing of the engine. This pre-ignition can cause unusual back pressure on the Pistons, Rods and Rod Bearings, and raise Fire deck Temperatures in the combustion chamber significantly
If you’re unsure about what a particular additive might contain consider this. If it appears to be cheap compared to other additives, that’s one clue. Another is if you read the label and you see words like, Disperses Water, Melts Ice, or Dissolves Wax, you can bet your looking at Alcohol and you probably don’t want it.